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Ѻا : 28/3/2016
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  Environmental pollution with antimicrobial agents from bulk drug manufacturing industries in Hyderabad, South India, is associated with dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing pathogens
  11 Ҥ 2560
 
 


Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s15010-017-1007-2



Environmental pollution with antimicrobial agents from bulk drug manufacturing industries in Hyderabad, South India, is associated with dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing pathogens

Authors

Christoph Lübbert, Christian Baars, Anil Dayakar, Norman Lippmann, Arne C. Rodloff, Martina Kinzig, Fritz Sörgel


Abstract

Purpose

High antibiotic and antifungal concentrations in wastewater from anti-infective drug production may exert selection pressure for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. We investigated the environmental presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients and their association with MDR Gram-negative bacteria in Hyderabad, South India, a major production area for the global bulk drug market.

Methods

From Nov 19 to 28, 2016, water samples were collected from the direct environment of bulk drug manufacturing facilities, the vicinity of two sewage treatment plants, the Musi River, and habitats in Hyderabad and nearby villages. Samples were analyzed for 25 anti-infective pharmaceuticals with liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry and for MDR Gram-negative bacteria using chromogenic culture media. In addition, specimens were screened with PCR for blaVIM, blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP-1, and blaOXA-48 resistance genes.

Results

All environmental specimens from 28 different sampling sites were contaminated with antimicrobials. High concentrations of moxifloxacin, voriconazole, and fluconazole (up to 694.1, 2500, and 236,950 µg/L, respectively) as well as increased concentrations of eight other antibiotics were found in sewers in the PatancheruBollaram industrial area. Corresponding microbiological analyses revealed an extensive presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters (carrying mainly blaOXA-48, blaNDM, and blaKPC) in more than 95% of the samples.

Conclusions

Insufficient wastewater management by bulk drug manufacturing facilities leads to unprecedented contamination of water resources with antimicrobial pharmaceuticals, which seems to be associated with the selection and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing pathogens. The development and global spread of antimicrobial resistance present a major challenge for pharmaceutical producers and regulatory agencies.

Keywords

Antibiotics Antifungal agents Antimicrobial resistance Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) Non-fermenters Colonization Infection Selection pressure 

A. C. Rodloff, M. Kinzig, and F. Sörgel contributed equally as senior authors.